Part 10: How To Prepare a Multimodal Presentation

Multimodal Presentations are now compulsory assessments for Year 11 and Year 12. In this part of our guide, we break them down and step you through how to ace them!

guide english how to prepare a multimodal presentation

Introducing Multimodal Presentations

Multimodal Presentations have been around for a while, but now they are a compulsory part of Year 11 and 12 assessments. But what are multimodal presentations? They require you to deliver an oral presentation, often with a visual element. This can be a daunting and technical task. In this guide, we give you a detailed breakdown of what to expect and look at a NESA sample assessment. We also give you a step-by-step process for putting your Band 6 presentations together!

Why do students struggle with Multimodal Presentations

Many students simply don’t prepare adequately. It’s very easy for students to feel that a three to five-minute presentation will be easy and something they can present off the cuff. Others don’t take advantage of the range of modes they have at their disposal to present in. You, like your peers, might do poorly in Multimodal Presentations because you are nervous and stumble through your presentation.

At the root of these struggles is a failure to dedicate enough time to preparing the multimodal presentation.

In this article, we’ll talk you through how to prepare for your Multimodal Presentation and give you practical strategies for delivering an insightful speech.

We Will Discuss:

Why Do I Need to Do a Multimodal Presentation?

From 2018, all Year 11 students will have to give one multimodal presentation as part of their three formal assessments. In Year 12, from 2019 onwards, students will need to give one multimodal presentation as part of the formal assessment process.

But what exactly is a multimodal presentation?

What is a Multimodal Presentation?

Producing a multimodal presentation is a daunting experience. The off-putting aspect is knowing that you need to stand and present in front of your peers. This is what the majority of students get anxious about. The best way to avoid this anxiety is to prepare thoroughly – this includes:

  • Researching your text;
  • Producing your presentation;
  • Writing your script; and
  • Rehearsing it.

What does “multimodal” mean?

NESA defines the different ways of engaging with texts as modes. They provide the following categories: listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing. We can break these down further into two varieties:

Table: The Modes of Communication
Engaging Producing
Listening Writing
Viewing Representing
Reading Speaking

When something is multimodal, it uses a combination of two or more of the above modes. NESA defines multimodal as:

“Comprising more than one mode. A multimodal text uses a combination of two or more communication modes, for example, print, image and spoken text as in film or computer presentations.”

In the NESA Guidelines for Assessment and Reporting in Stage 6, the following advice is given:

“The multimodal presentation is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills across all of the modes. A multimodal presentation includes at least one mode other than reading and writing such as listening, speaking, viewing and representing.
No specific weightings have been allocated to the modes to allow flexibility in task design and to meet the needs and interests of students in a range of contexts.”

But what does this mean? Let’s break it down:

  • Students have to do a multimodal task;
  • Students have to read and write for this task;
  • In addition, students must either use listening, speaking, viewing and representing;
  • As this is a presentation, it will require speaking;
  • Students will likely have to produce a visual representation of some sort.

These multimodal tasks are not new, but now they are mandatory.

The most common form for this sort of task is currently a visual representation of an idea or character from a text and an accompanying presentation that explains the student’s choices. Another common task is a presentation accompanied by slides – such as a PowerPoint or Prezi presentation.

What Do Multimodal Presentations Require You To Do?

A mulitimodal presentation requires you to demonstrate aptitude across various modes. This reflects the requirements of communication in the real world and will be necessary skills for you in the majority of modern workplaces.

Multimodal presentations will require some skills with visual representations, but you will not be expected to produce amazing artworks, instead, you will be assessed on how you represent ideas and the strategies that you take.

The other important skill you will be assessed on will be your speaking skills. As much as the vast majority of people dislike public speaking, it is a necessary skill for communicating. You will be assessed on how well you present information orally. This will include a focus on –

  • Pacing,
  • Clarity of speech,
  • Voice modulation – how you use tone and volume,
  • Eye contact and body language.

So, now you know what is involved, how do you prepare for a multimodal presentation? Let’s take a look.

A sample multimodal presentation

It goes without saying that you have to have a thorough understanding of your text to do well in a multimodal assessment. This means that you should thoroughly read and analyse your set text or texts. If you need help with this, please check out Part 2 of this Guide – how to analyse your English texts.

The other things you will need to work on are your presentation skills and techniques and your visual representations. As the tasks you will be set will vary from text to text and teacher to teacher, it is hard to give universal advice. What we can do, though, is provide a step-by-step process for approaching these types of tasks.

Before we do that, let’s look at a sample task provided by NESA.

To demonstrate the potential requirements of a visual task, we have modified the assessment task and criteria by including a visual element in the assessment task. The sample task is for the Common Module: Text and Human Experience and is on Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. This sample assessment has two parts:

Part A

Compose an imaginative text of no more than 700 words to reflect your understanding of human experiences related to one of the following three areas that you have focused on in class:

    • Power and justice;
    • Transgression and redemption;
    • ‘Witch-hunting’.

The type of text you choose may be a short story, a script, a performance poem, or another type of text approved by your teacher. Your teacher will provide three lessons in class for you to write, conference and/or edit your work and the final version will be submitted on the due date.

This is the creative part of the task. You must produce an imaginative text of your own based on an existing one. You will submit it, and once you have received a mark, you will have to give a presentation. This presentation is Part B of the task, described below:

Part B

In class, on the due date, you will give a presentation and explain and evaluate how your composition represents your understanding of human experiences and how this understanding has been reflected and/or challenged in one piece of self-selected related material. The presentation to the class should be no more than three minutes in length and must include the use of a visual aid.

This is the reflection part of the assessment. This reflection requires you to create a visual stimulus to help you explain your knowledge of the text and your reflection on your creative task.

To help you prepare for assessments, students must be presented with an assessment marking criteria to show students what is expected of them. Now let’s take a look at a marking criteria.

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Understanding and Responding to a Multimodal Marking Criteria

The NESA sample includes a marking criteria. As we have modified the task, we have amended the criteria to reflect the inclusion of a visual element. To achieve a Band 6 result a student must:

  • Compose a finely crafted text demonstrating an insightful understanding of human experiences;
  • Explain and critically evaluate how texts represent specific aspects of human experiences using detailed and relevant textual evidence;
  • Make relevant and insightful connections between their own text and their related text;
  • Communicate ideas with insightful visual aids, highly effective control of voice, pace and body language.

Source: NESA Sample Formal Assessment Tasks

Now we can see what the standards being set are, we need to unpack them to respond to them. Let’s break down what these mean, exactly.

What is a marking criteria?

A marking criteria is a kind of Rosetta Stone, it allows students and teachers to communicate using a common language. Students can use the marking criteria that must accompany the assessment notification to decipher the teacher’s expectations for the task.

Think about that for a moment.

In the criteria, teachers give students the specific details of what they must do get full marks.

Clearly, this is a useful document. To make sense of it, let’s unpack the four metrics that will be used to assess if you have produced a Band 6 result or not.

Criterion 1: “composes a finely crafted text demonstrating an insightful understanding of human experiences”

This statement says that you must have a “finely crafted text.” This is referring to your creative submission. To be finely crafted your creative submission needs to be:

  • A well-structured narrative;
  • Use correct grammar and sentence structure;
  • Be free from spelling errors;
  • Utilise literary devices to convey meaning.

In addition, it needs to demonstrate an “insightful understanding of human experiences.” This may sound complex, but really it is not that difficult. To demonstrate this you need to convey what it is like to be a human being. This is easier than it sounds.

Do you know why?

Because you are a human being and have plenty of experience to draw on for your response. What sorts of things demonstrate an understanding of human experience? Let’s have a look at some important and easy to develop aspects:

  • Emotional complexity – This is when you experience multiple emotions in succession or at the same time. Have you ever had an argument with a friend or family member and been frustrated and angry that they don’t understand your point or give you your way? You will have. This is a moment of complexity caused by the fact that you are: a) disappointed that they don’t agree with you which makes you a little angry and frustrated, b) feel that they should be on your side because you love each other or share a close bond of friendship. It is usually, but not always the bond that trumps frustration and is why we are more likely to reconcile with close friends or family.
  • Human empathy – Humans have empathy for other humans and animals. We often feel sympathetic or angry when we see bad things happening to what we perceive as innocent parties. This empathy can often cause internal conflicts in us because we may have a set of legal rules or social/ cultural values that interfere with our ability to act on our empathy. This kind of moral struggle is at the heart of many political or social disagreement and conflicts.
  • Hopes, desires, and dreams – As humans, we are imbued with imagination. Our ability to imagine things allows us to picture ourselves in various future scenarios. These sorts of imagined situations reflect where we desire, or maybe don’t desire, to be in the future. This allows us to be optimistic about our future and set goals to achieve these dreams. But it also sets us up for disappointment when we don’t achieve these things. Maybe we thought we’d do well at a sporting carnival or get that Band 6 result, and we are disappointed when we’re not successful in these objectives.
  • Resilience – Humans are also resilient. When we fail, we try to put ourselves back together rather than wallow in things that have not gone our way. This is reflected in our emotional complexity, our ability to empathise with others even if we have a hard time of it ourselves, and our ability to try and achieve our dreams even if we have setbacks or have them shattered the first time around. Resilience and determination are human qualities that are shared by everybody and demonstrate human experience.

Obviously, writing about human experience is not that hard. It doesn’t have to be a mystical or opaque goal, you just have to represent the kinds of experience you have had, that other people will have shared. Drawing on human qualities such as the four listed above, or combining some of them together, will give you a narrative that demonstrates these kinds of insights.

Criterion 2: “explains and critically evaluates how texts represent specific aspects of human experiences using detailed and relevant textual evidence”

This point builds upon the knowledge and insights from the first criteria. If you have a solid grasp on human experience, which you should as a person, then your over the line already! The theme you have to discuss is stated clearly – aspects of human experiences – the sorts of human emotions we discussed above.

The key phrase in this point is “explains and critically evaluates how texts represent”.

What is this instructing you to do?

  • It is telling you that you need to explain how texts develop meaning. That is to say, how do they convey ideas.
  • Techniques aren’t just used by composers to show off, they are used to make particular ideas, events, or experiences more prominent.
  • It is your job as a critic to explain how a composer is using various techniques and textual structures to convey their ideas to the audience.

The second part of this criteria that you want to focus on is the phrase “detailed and relevant textual evidence.”

  • This is telling you how you must present your argument. It is not enough to say that a composer is doing something in their text, you have to prove it.
  • To do this you must use examples and explain how they work.

If you are unsure of how to use evidence, then you should read part 2 of our Beginner’s Guide to Acing HSC English.

Criterion 3: “makes relevant and insightful connections between their own text and their related text”

This point is concerned with how you reflect on your own work and how you see it in relation to the texts you have been set for study.

“Makes relevant and insightful connections” is instructing you to explain why you have made the representational choices that you have in your creative text. This is a way of assessing your critical thinking and understanding of the core text.

  • Your creative for Part A needs to reflect the concerns and issues of the core text.
  • When you deliver your presentation, your script or speech needs to explain clearly how these texts are connected and why the things you have chosen to represent reflect the original text’s concerns.
  • Your visual representation needs to convey these concerns, too. You need to think about how the visual aspects of your presentation support your argument about the text and your own text and their connections.
  • A good student will be aware of the strength and weaknesses of their creative submission and be able to confidently discuss what they feel they have conveyed well, and what they wish they could have conveyed to audiences more effectively.
  • Self-reflection is a good practice to get into so you can continually improve and develop your work. Demonstrating an awareness of this and desire to do so will always score well as it is a key component of the Stage 6 Outcomes.

The final criteria is directly concerned with the presentation of Part B. Let’s take a look and see what you need to do.

Criterion 4: “communicates ideas with insightful visual aids, highly effective control of voice, pace and body language”

The key verb here is “communicates.” This tells you that it is your communication skills that are being assessed.

Tasks such as the above will be forms of assessment that you will face in Year 11, too.

The other aspects of the criteria are easier to define:

  • Insightful visual aids – your presentation must convey your ideas clearly. They don’t need to be works of art, but they do need to convey a conceptual point that you explain in the oral part of the presentation.
  • Highly effective control of voice – when you present you need to vary your tone, pitch, and volume to convey ideas. Nobody likes it when a speaker is monotonal. You must demonstrate an awareness of how voice control allows listeners to better understand your concerns. Some things to try and include:
    • Speak loud enough that all in the room can hear you.
    • Use tone to convey the relevant emotions of your speech. For example, if you are quoting a text, try to use tone to convey the emotions of that quotation to distinguish it clearly from the rest of your speech.
    • Make sure you give vocal cues. For example, go up in pitch at the end of a question.
  • Pace – watch how fast you speak. Speeches are normally presented between 120 and 140 words per minute. This is because information retention falls off significantly outside of this range – listeners get bored or can’t follow on. You should practice speaking at this rate. To do this:
    1. Count the words in your speech and divide it by 120;
    2. Break the speech into 120-word chunks;
    3. Set a timer or stopwatch; then,
    4. Perform the speech and aim to complete each 120-word block in around a minute.
  • Body language – animate your presentation by using your body. You don’t need to perform an interpretive dance, but you should point at relevant slides and use hand gestures to emphasise relevant or important points. Good public speakers are never static, they conduct listeners through their oration by punctuating it with body language.

While the specific preparation you will need to do will vary depending on what the specifics of your task are, we can give you a solid step-by-step process to follow every time you need to create a multimodal presentation. And that is what we will do now!

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How to create a Multimodal Presentation: Step-by-Step

Each presentation task and its marking criteria will be different, but the process for approaching these tasks needs to be process driven and systematic. Let’s look at a foolproof step-by-step process:

guide english how to prepare a multimodal assessment

Flowchart: The process for preparing a multimodal assessment

Read through this process once or twice and let it sink in.

Do you have a rough understanding of the logic of this process? Make sure you have a clear understanding of the task you have been set before you begin trying to put it together.

For the purpose of this Guide we will use the NESA sample assessment task as an example. Let’s quickly look at it again. Remember, the sample task is for Common Module: Text and Human Experience and is on Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. This sample assessment has two parts:

Part A

Compose an imaginative text of no more than 700 words to reflect your understanding of human experiences related to one of the following three areas that you have focused on in class:

    • Power and justice;
    • Transgression and redemption;
    • ‘Witch-hunting’.

The type of text you choose may be a short story, a script, a performance poem, or another type of text approved by your teacher. Your teacher will provide three lessons in class for you to write, conference and/or edit your work and the final version will be submitted on the due date.

This is the creative part of the task. You must produce an imaginative text of your own based on an existing one. You will submit it, and once you have received a mark, you will have to give a presentation. This presentation is Part B of the task, described below:

Part B

In class, on the due date, you will give a presentation and explain and evaluate how your composition represents your understanding of human experiences and how this understanding has been reflected and/or challenged in one piece of self-selected related material. The presentation to the class should be no more than three minutes in length and must include the use of a visual aid.

As this guide is focused on producing a multimodal presentation, we will skip Part A. If you need help with producing creatives and imaginative recreations you should refer to the other parts of this Guide:

Now, we will use Part B of the task as the example. Let’s take a look at the steps in detail!

Step 1: Read and analyse your text!

This may seem obvious, but it is an important step that many take for granted. Make sure that you have a comprehensive understanding of the text and detailed notes before you begin putting the presentation together.

This is because:

  • You will better grasp the expectations of the task if you understand all the concerns of the text and module;
  • Your task will be easier if you have the knowledge and details to hand;
  • You will be able to have confidence in your materials;
  • You will be less likely to have to stop and reanalyse parts of the texts.

If you need help with textual analysis, you should read part 2 of this Guide for a step-by-step process for textual analysis.

Some tasks will ask you to choose and analyse a supplementary text you select yourself. This sample assessment task, for example, asks you to find and analyse a supplementary text for The Crucible by Arthur Miller. The first step in completing this task would be to find an appropriate related textfor example, Phillip K Dick’s short story The Minority Report is a good text for exploring ideas of trust and justice.

Step 2: Read the assessment notification thoroughly

As we discussed above, the assessment notification will give you:

  • Clear instructions on the steps you need to undertake to complete the assessment task;
  • The different modes you will be required to demonstrate an understanding and ability in;
  • A marking criteria that will explain what you need to do to score within each Performance Band.

If you are unsure how to do this, you should reread the explanation we provided above and read Part 4 of this Guide: Understanding English Notifications and Assessment Tasks.

Remember, the sample task has two parts:

  1. Produce an imaginative recreation of 700 words based on your study of The Crucible.
  2. Produce a multimodal presentation once your imaginative piece has been marked and returned. We will only concern ourselves with this part of the task.

Step 3: Unpack the question

Before you begin planning you need to understand what you are being asked to do. It is important that you unpack the question as you would for an essay, regardless of the type of task you have been set. To do this:

  1. Read the question several times.
  2. Underline the key verbs. These will tell you what you should be doing.
  3. Underline the key nouns. These will tell you what you need to be discussing or representing in your presentation.
  4. Rewrite the question a couple of different ways in your own words. This will help you understand the different ways this question can be interpreted.
  5. Decide which approach is best suited for you and your understanding of the text.

Part B of the sample assessment has the following instruction:

“You will give a presentation and explain and evaluate how your composition represents your understanding of human experiences and how this understanding has been reflected and/or challenged in one piece of self-selected related material. The presentation to the class should be no more than three minutes in length and must include the use of a visual aid.”

Let’s unpack what this is asking you to do.

  1. You must create a presentation on the theme of human experiences.
  2. In this presentation, you must discuss the composition that you produced based on your study of The Crucible.
  3. You must choose a related text for The Crucible, analyse it, and discuss it in your presentation.
  4. You must discuss how your understanding of human experience has been challenged by engaging with your self-selected text.
  5. You must use a visual aid in your presentation.
  6. Your presentation can only be three minutes.

This task is difficult for a couple of reasons. Firstly, it has several components. Secondly, you only have 3 minutes. You will need to plan this carefully. Let’s think about how to do this.

Step 4: Plan your presentation

Before you write and draw or produce your slides, you need to plan out what you will talk about and how you will structure it. This is why you should plan things first.

The things you need to consider when planning a multimodal presentation are:

  • The length of the task – presentations are oral tasks. This means that you need to adhere to the conventions around pace (remember, this is around 120-140 words per minute). If you have a three minute task, that means your upper limit for the script should be about 420 words.
  • The modes assessed – speaking, reading, and writing are clearly involved as you need to read text, write a speech, and present it. But what else do you need to do? Is there a visual component? What sort of visual component is it? Slides? An image? An animation? A poster? Is there a listening component, how do you need to prepare for that?
  • The structure of your response – presentations need to be focused and concise. You don’t have much time and this means you need to be focused rather than broad and concise rather than longwinded. You need to get your points across efficiently. Use your knowledge of the length of the task to decide how many ideas you should focus on. (Hint: It should most likely be no more than two ideas/ themes).

When you have figured out the basics above, you want to map out the project and plan out the structure. Ask yourself the following questions:

  • What will the images/ slides be of?
  • What is involved in producing these?
  • What is the structure of my presentation going to be?
  • How will I explain my ideas?
  • How will I explain my representational choices?

Returning to the sample task, what do we need to do? Let’s break this down into specifics:

  • Decide on a particular idea or theme for your speech;
  • Write a 420-word speech;
  • Produce an accompanying visual – this could be a digital or physical collage, a montage of video clips, a poster, or a powerpoint or Prezi presentation.

Step 5: Produce the visual elements

You may not be able to produce all of the visual aspects of an assessment task first, but you should begin with the core elements. If you are doing a slide presentation, you can always come back to the final slides that relate to your speech when that is finished.

What you must do is produce the central visual element. This will take time and skill. You will need to think about how to visually represent aspects of your text from characters to themes. Remember to use the tools at your disposal to produce these. In addition to software programs like Microsoft PowerPoint, MSPaint, and Adobe Photoshop, there are a wide variety available on the internet for free:

  • Canva – This is an app for creating drag-and-drop images and infographics;
  • Lucidchart – This is an app that is handy for creating charts and flowcharts;
  • Prezi – This is an app that is used for creating dynamic visual presentations;
  • WordClouds – This is a webtool for making word cloud visualisations;
  • Creatoon – This is a fairly basic cut out animation tool;
  • Moovly – Another animation tool;
  • Blender – This is open source 3D software. It is fairly versatile and easy to use;
  • There are plenty of video editing apps out there that are used for making things like fan-made trailers. If you wanted to edit together existing clips to make a presentation clip you might look at:

Once you have produced your core visual element or elements, get feedback on them. Make sure that you ask your friends, teachers, or parents if they can understand how your visual representation embodies your ideas. Matrix English students always get timely feedback from tutors and teachers about their assessment tasks. You will obviously have to explain your choices, but this will help you plan out your speech!

Let’s think about how you could apply this to your assessment task. You could create the following visual elements:

  • Poster – you could produce a poster with three elements: one presenting a central human experience from The Crucible, another presenting the same idea from our self-selected text, and the same element as depicted in Part A of the task in our creative.
  • Canva Infographic – you could visualise the central idea of the three texts and explain in steps how you analysed it in your self-selected text and represented it in your creative for Part A.
  • A Prezi Presentation – you could create a slide presentation that takes you through the key idea and perhaps cites some examples from the texts and your creative from Part A.
  • A short film of found clips – you could use a video editing app to cut scenes from films and documentaries that have similar ideas and slice them together to make your own remixed short film! You could take clips from shows like The Handmaid’s TaleHouse of Cards, and The Man in the High Castle to demonstrate a key human experience from your texts. You could then use the remaining two minutes or so to discuss your choices in the video and how they reflect your creative.

There are many different options at your disposal. You are only limited by technology, imagination, and the amount of time you have to present.

Once you have put the visual element together, you’re now ready to produce the speech element.

Let’s look at how to do that.

Step 6: Write your speech

Speeches are different to essays, but contain the same structural elements.

  • Speeches are shorter and more concise than essays, but still need to have an introduction, a body, and conclusion.
  • You will need to focus on one or two ideas only.
  • You will need to use repetition to emphasize your main points.

To write your speech do the following:

  1. Develop your thesis.
  2. Pick your themes.
  3. Choose the evidence that supports your themes. (Try to use only a couple of examples per paragraph. You want detail not quantity!)
  4. Note down how your visual representation conveys these themes and embodies these ideas.
  5. Write your body paragraphs – introduce the paragraph with a sentence and then support it with your pieces of evidence.
  6. Connect your evidence to your thesis and visual element. Explain why your choices support this.
  7. Write your introduction – explain clearly and concisely what your argument is and how you will support it.
  8. Write your conclusion – explain clearly what you have argued and why. Make a statement relevant to the module.

Because speeches are limited in length, you don’t have much space to talk about lots of things.

A good speech focuses in detail on one or two ideas.

Let’s put this in perspective using our task:

  • We only have around 420 words (100 words for a body, 50 for a conclusion, 270 for a body-paragraph or two);
  • We need to discuss two texts – our creative and our self-selected text;,
  • We must discuss our image;
  • Therefore, we will only be able to explore one idea!

This makes our task hard. What do we discuss? Justice, trust, honesty? These are all key ideas in the texts. This is when we must rely on our knowledge of the texts to see which one will be the most enlightening topic for our audience and visual element!

Step 7: Edit your speech

Once you have produced a speech, you need to proof and edit it. Make sure that you:

  • Read it aloud;
  • Check the structure of the argument;
  • Eensure that you support each point with evidence;
  • Have grammatically correct sentences.

Editing your work helps you avoid tossing marks away unnecessarily. Matrix English Students are taught how to proof and edit their work. If you are unsure where to start, read Part 7 of our Beginner’s Guide to Acing HSC English: How to Edit Your Essay.

Step 8: Rehearse

Now you have the two parts – the visual element and the speech – you need to combine them together and practise the performance. You want to rehearse several times. The more thoroughly you know your speech, the less reliant you will be on palm cards or scripts. A good performance seems natural. If you know the material well enough you should only need the palm cards as prompts if you get stuck.

Practising regularly and in advance will help you manage stage fright and anxiety.

Some suggestions for rehearsing effectively are:

  • Practise in front of a mirror or a pet, this will help you learn the material;
  • Record your performance using a laptop or phone or camera – you will be able to watch and analyse your performance and see the strengths and weaknesses;
  • When you’re ready, go and present in front of your friends or family. A human audience is better than a mirror. It can give you constructive feedback. This will help you mentally prepare for presenting in front of a class;
  • Practise some more! There is no such thing as too much practice!

Now that you have created, written, and prepared, you are ready to go forth and achieve that Band 6 result with your performance!

Do you lack confidence presenting?

Come find out how we’ve helped hundreds of students ace their Multimodal Presentations by teaching them the delivery skills to match their insightful presentations and book a free trial lesson.

© Matrix Education and www.matrix.edu.au, 2018. Unauthorised use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Matrix Education and www.matrix.edu.au with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

 

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