Literary Techniques Part 1: Techniques for Analysing a Written Text
Posted on September 6, 2017 by Matrix Education
Literary Techniques are the techniques that composers use in their written texts to help convey or heighten meaning. Rather than writing in plain language, composers give more emphasis to their ideas by utilising literary techniques to make them stand out.
Common techniques we will look at are – Allegory, Contrast, Imagery, Irony, Metaphor, Simile, and Tone.
Below is a list of the most common literary techniques used in texts:
|Allegory||Story with a double meaning: one primary (on the surface) and one secondary.|
|Allusion||A subtle or indirect reference to another thing, text, historical period, or religious belief.|
|Alliteration||Repetition of consonants at the start of words or in a sentence or phrase.|
|Cliché||An over-used, common expression.|
|Consonance||Repetition of consonants throughout a sentence or phrase.|
|Contrast||Paradox, antithesis, oxymoron, juxtaposition, contrast in description etc.|
|Didactic||Any text that instructs the reader or is obviously delivering a moral message.|
|Disjunction||A conjunction (e.g. ‘but’ or ‘yet’) that dramatically interrupts rhythm of sentence.|
|Ellipsis||A dramatic pause (…) creates tension or suggests words can’t be spoken.|
|Emotive language||Words that stir the readers’ emotions.|
|Enjambment||A poetic technique, when a sentence or phrase runs over more than one line (or stanza). This assists the flow of a poem.|
|Euphemism||Mild expression used to replace a harsh one.|
|Exclamation||Exclamatory sentence ending in “!” to convey high emotion.|
|Form||Purpose and features of a text influence its construction and will suggest its structure.|
|Figurative language & sound devices||metaphor, metonymy, hyperbole, simile, personification, assonance, alliteration, consonance, onomatopoeia, etc. These devices have a powerful impact as they work on our senses to strengthen the subject matter of the text.|
|Fractured/truncated sentences||Incomplete sentences used to increase tension or urgency, or reflect the way people speak to each other.|
|Gaps & silences||What is not said; whose voice isn’t heard and whose voice dominates?|
|Humour||Incongruity, parody, satire, exaggeration, irony, puns etc. used to lighten the overall tone.|
|Icons||A single person, object or image that represents complex ideas and feelings.|
|Imagery||Vivid pictures created by words. Reader visualises character/setting clearly.|
|Imperative Voice||Forceful use of the verb at the start of sentence or phrase.|
|Intertextuality||A text makes a reference to other texts, may be explicit, implied or inferred.|
|Irony||Gap between what is said and what is meant.|
|Juxtaposition||Layering images/scenes to have a dramatic impact.|
|Level of usage of language||Slang, colloquial, informal or formal.|
|Linear||Sequential – in chronological order.|
|Metaphor||Comparison of 2 objects where one becomes another – adds further layers of meaning about object being compared.|
|Modality||The force the words are delivered at. High modality = forceful. Low modality = gentle.|
|Non-linear||Non-sequential narrative, events do not occur in chronological order|
|Onomatopoeia||A word that echoes the sound it represents. Reader hears what is happening.|
|Parody||Conscious imitation for a satiric purpose.|
|Person||First, second or third person.First person refers to the speaker himself or a group that includes the speaker (i.e., I, me, we and us).Second person refers to the speaker’s audience (i.e., you).Third person refers to everybody else (e.g., he, him, she, her, it, they, them), including all other nouns (e.g. James, Swedish, fish, mice).|
|Personification||Human characteristic given to a non-human object. Inanimate objects take on a life.|
|perspective||A particular way of looking at individuals, issues, events, texts, facts etc.|
|Plosive consonants||Harsh sounds in a sentence or phrase.|
|Repetition||Of words or syntax (order of words) for emphasis or persuasion.|
|Representation||How a composer conveys meaning through textual features.|
|Satire||Composition which ridicules in a scornful & humorous way.|
|Setting||Location of a story – internal and external.|
|Sibilance||Repetition of ‘s’ – can sounds melodious and sweet or cold and icy.|
|Simile||Comparison of 2 objects using ‘like’ or ‘as’.|
|Symbolism||When an object represents one or more (often complex) ideas.|
|Syntax – sentence structure||Short, simple sentences or truncated sentences create tension, haste or urgency; compound or complex sentences are slower, often feature in formal texts.|
|Tense||Present, past, future (events are predicted).|
|Theme||Message or moral of a story – makes us ponder bigger issues in life.|
|Tone||The way composer or character feels – conveyed by word choice.|
|Word choice or Diction||Emotive, forceful, factual, descriptive, blunt, graphic, disturbing, informative etc. E.g. use of forceful verbs ‘insist’ & ‘demand’ can be very persuasive.|
If you want to take your analysis further and expand your awareness of literary techniques, read the article: Literary Techniques Part 2: How to Analyse Poetry and Prose to learn how to analyse literary techniques in poetry and prose with reference to all the major techniques.
When you write an essay identifying the techniques used by a composer, you need to explain how that technique is creating meaning in the text. This process is called literary analysis, and is an important skill that Matrix English students are taught in the Matrix English courses. Great marks in essays are earned through detailed analysis of your texts and not merely listing examples and techniques.
Want to take your textual analysis to the next level?
- Read the article: Literary Techniques Part 2: How to Analyse Poetry and Prose to learn how to analyse literary techniques in poetry and prose with reference to all the major techniques.
- Discover how to analyse literary techniques and discuss them insightfully in your essays with an HSC expert at our Year 12 English Advanced courses.
- Learn How to Write a Thesis Statement with Part 1 of Essay writing Guide.
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